Louisiana



Public Breastfeeding Law

§2247.1. Breastfeeding; discriminatory practices prohibited

A. Legislative findings and declarations.

(1) The Legislature of Louisiana hereby finds that the surgeon general of the United States recommends that babies from birth to one year of age be breastfed, unless medically contraindicated, in order for the babies to attain an optimal healthy start in life, but that despite that recommendation, statistics reveal a declining percentage of mothers who are now choosing to breastfeed their babies, and nearly half of all new mothers are choosing formula over breastfeeding before they even leave the hospital.

(2) The legislature further finds that breast milk provides better nutrition and more immunity to disease, is easier for babies to digest, and may raise a baby’s intelligence quotient, but that the social constraints of modern society work against the choice of breastfeeding and lead new mothers with demanding time schedules to opt for formula feeding for reasons such as embarrassment and the fear of social ostracism or criminal prosecution.

(3) The legislature does hereby declare that the promotion of family values and infant health demands that our society put an end to the vicious cycle of embarrassment and ignorance that constricts women and men alike on the subject of breastfeeding, and that in a genuine effort to promote family values, our society should encourage public acceptance of this most basic act of nurture between mother and baby and should take appropriate steps to ensure that no mother is made to feel incriminated or socially ostracized for breastfeeding her baby.

B. Right to breastfeed. Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, a mother may breastfeed her baby in any place of public accommodation, resort, or amusement.

C. “Discriminatory practice in connection with public accommodations” to include a discriminatory practice against a mother breastfeeding her baby. Any direct or indirect act or practice of exclusion, distinction, restriction, segregation, limitation, refusal, denial, or any other act or practice of differentiation or preference in the treatment of a mother breastfeeding her baby shall be a “discriminatory practice in connection with public accommodations” for the purposes of this Chapter.

D. Breastfeeding; discriminatory practices prohibited. It is a discriminatory practice in connection with public accommodations for a person to deny an individual the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, and accommodations of a place of public accommodation, resort, or amusement, as defined in this Chapter, on the grounds that the individual is a mother breastfeeding her baby. This discriminatory practice in connection with public accommodations is prohibited.

E. Breastfeeding not a violation of law. A mother breastfeeding her baby in any location, public or private, where the mother is otherwise authorized to be, shall not be deemed to be in violation of R.S. 14:106 or of any other provision of law.

Acts 2001, No. 576, §1.

Enforcement Provision

Louisiana Commission on Human Rights §2257. Complaints of discrimination; procedure; conciliation agreements; enforcement
A. An individual claiming to be aggrieved by an unlawful practice, a member of the commission, or the attorney general may file with the commission a written sworn complaint stating that an unlawful practice has been committed, setting forth the facts upon which the complaint is based, and setting forth facts sufficient to enable the commission to identify the persons charged, hereinafter referred to as the “respondent”. The commission staff or a person designated pursuant to its rules shall promptly investigate the allegations of unlawful practice set forth in the complaint and shall within five days furnish the respondent with a copy of the complaint. The complaint shall be filed within one hundred eighty days after the alleged unlawful practice occurs.
B. The commission or an individual designated pursuant to its rules shall determine, within thirty days after the complaint has been filed, whether there is probable cause to believe the respondent has engaged in an unlawful practice. If it is determined that there is no probable cause to believe that the respondent has engaged in an unlawful practice, the commission shall issue an order dismissing the complaint and shall furnish a copy of the order to the complainant, the respondent, the attorney general, and such other public officers and persons as the commission deems proper.
C. The complainant, within ten days after receiving a copy of the order dismissing the complaint, may file with the commission an application for reconsideration of the order. Upon such application, the commission or an individual designated pursuant to its rules shall make a new determination, within ten days, whether there is probable cause to believe that the respondent has engaged in an unlawful practice. If it is determined that there is no probable cause to believe that the respondent has engaged in an unlawful practice, the commission shall issue an order dismissing the complaint and furnishing a copy of the order to the complainant, the respondent, the attorney general, and such other public officers and persons as the commission deems proper.
D. If the staff determines, after investigation, or if the commission determines, after the review provided for in Subsection (B) or (C) of this Section, that there is probable cause to believe that the respondent has engaged in an unlawful practice, the commission staff shall endeavor to eliminate the alleged unlawful practice by conference, conciliation, and persuasion. The terms of a conciliation agreement reached with a respondent may require him to refrain from the commission of unlawful discriminatory practices in the future and make such further provisions as may be agreed upon between the commission or its staff and the respondent. If a conciliation agreement is entered into, the commission shall issue and serve on the complainant an order stating its terms. A copy of the order shall be delivered to the respondent, the attorney general, and such other public officers and persons as the commission deems proper. Except for the terms of the conciliation agreement, neither the commission nor any officer or employee thereof shall make public, without the written consent of the complainant and the respondent, information concerning efforts in a particular case to eliminate an unlawful practice by conference, conciliation, or persuasion whether or not there is a determination of probable cause or a conciliation agreement.
E. At the expiration of one year from the date of a conciliation agreement, and at other times in its reasonable discretion, the commission staff may investigate whether the terms of the agreement have been and are being complied with by the respondent. Upon a finding that the terms of the agreement are not being complied with by the respondent, the commission shall take such action as it deems appropriate to assure compliance.
F. At any time after a complaint is filed, the commission may file an action in the district court in a parish in which the subject of the complaint occurs, or in a parish in which a respondent resides or has his principal place of business, seeking appropriate temporary relief against the respondent pending final determination of proceedings under this Chapter, including an order or decree restraining him from doing or procuring any act tending to render ineffectual any order the commission may enter with respect to the complaint. The court may grant such temporary relief or restraining orders it deems just and proper.
G. Insofar as it is not inconsistent or in conflict with the procedure and practice provided by this Chapter, the Code of Civil Procedure shall apply to proceedings under this Chapter.
H.(1) The complainant may request termination of commission proceedings and the issuance of a notice of the right to file a civil action in district court against the respondent named in the charge, provided the commission has not entered into a conciliation agreement to which the complainant is a party, and further provided that any one of the following apply:
(a) The charge filed with the commission is dismissed by the commission.
(b) The commission has not filed a civil action pursuant to this Section within one hundred and eighty days from the filing of a charge and such charge is still pending.
(2) The notice of the right to file a civil action in district court against the respondent may be issued to any one or more of the following parties:
(a) The person claiming to be aggrieved.
(b) Any person who the charge alleges was aggrieved by the alleged unlawful practice, but only if such charge was filed by a member of the commission.
(3)(a) The complainant and the respondent may agree to submit the complaint to voluntary binding arbitration at any time after the filing of a complaint and prior to the taking of testimony at a public hearing. The submission agreement shall be in writing and shall be signed by all parties.
(b) The arbitration proceeding shall be administered by the commission, or such other party as the commission deems proper, pursuant to procedures adopted for the arbitration of cases submitted under the commission’s authority. The commission shall select an arbitrator from a list provided and certified by a national recognized professional arbitration association. The selection shall be subject to agreement by all parties.
(c) The arbitrator shall have the same authority to hear and determine claims asserted under the human rights law as would the commission or a court of competent jurisdiction. The arbitrator shall also have such additional authority as the complainant(s) and respondent(s) may grant to the arbitrator.
(d) The determination and award of the arbitrator shall be final and binding. The determination and award of the arbitrator shall not be vacated, modified, or overturned except for reasons limited to corruption, fraud, or misconduct on behalf of any party in the obtaining of the determination and award.
(e) The complainant and respondent shall share equally in the administrative costs of the arbitration, including arbitrator fees, unless the commission, in good faith deems it necessary to utilize some other formula for sharing the cost of the arbitration.
(4) It shall be an unlawful practice for a party to a voluntary binding arbitration pursuant to this Subsection to violate the terms of the arbitration.
Acts 1988, No. 886, §1; Acts 1995, No. 1314, §1, eff. July 1, 1995; Acts 1997, No. 1409, §3, eff. Aug. 1, 1997.
§2261. Findings of the commission; orders; nature of affirmative action
A. If the commission determines that the respondent has not engaged in an unlawful practice, the commission shall state its findings of fact and conclusions of law and shall issue an order dismissing the complaint. A copy of the order shall be delivered to the complainant, the respondent, the attorney general, and such other public officers and persons as the commission deems proper.
B. If the commission determines that the respondent has engaged in an unlawful practice, the commission shall state its findings of fact and conclusions of law and shall issue an order requiring the respondent to cease and desist from the unlawful practice and to take such affirmative action as in the judgment of the commission will carry out the purposes of this Chapter. A copy of the order shall be delivered to the respondent, the complainant, the attorney general, and to such other public officers and persons as the commission deems proper.
C. Affirmative action ordered under this Section may include but is not limited to:
(1) Hiring, reinstatement, or upgrading of employees with or without back pay. Interim earnings or amounts earnable with reasonable diligence by the person or persons discriminated against shall operate to reduce the back pay otherwise allowable.
(2) Admission or restoration of individuals to union membership, admission to or participation in a guidance program, apprenticeship training program, on-the-job training program, or other occupational training or retraining program, and the utilization of objective criteria in the admission of individuals to such programs.
(3) Admission of individuals to a place of public accommodation, resort, or amusement.
(4) The extension to all individuals of the full and equal enjoyment of the advantages, facilities, privileges, and services of the respondent.
(5) Reporting as to the manner of compliance.
(6) Posting notices in conspicuous places in the respondent’s place of business in a form prescribed by the commission.
(7) Sale, exchange, lease, rental, assignment, or sublease of immovable property to an individual.
(8) Payment to the complainant of damages for injury caused by an unlawful practice, including compensation for humiliation and embarrassment, expenses incurred by the complainant in obtaining alternative housing accommodations, and other costs actually incurred by the complainant as a direct result of such unlawful practice.
D. The commission may publish or cause to be published the names of persons who have been determined to have engaged in an unlawful practice.
E. The proceeding for enforcement of a commission order shall be initiated by filing a complaint in the district court of the parish in which the subject of the complaint occurred or in the parish in which a respondent resides or has his principal place of business. Copies of the complaint shall be served upon all parties of record. Within thirty days after the filing of the complaint by the commission, or within such further time as the court may allow, the commission shall transmit to the court the original or a certified copy of the entire record upon which the order is based, including a transcript of testimony, which need not be printed. By stipulation of all parties to the proceeding, the record may be shortened.
F. The findings of fact of the commission shall be conclusive unless manifestly erroneous in view of the probative and substantive evidence on the whole record. The court may grant such temporary relief or restraining order as it deems just and may enter an order enforcing, modifying, and enforcing as modified, or setting aside in whole or in part the order of the commission, or remanding the case to the commission for further proceedings.
Acts 1988, No. 886, §1; Acts 1995, No. 1314, §1, eff. July 1, 1995.

§2264. Civil remedies for injunction and damages
Any person deeming himself injured by any alleged violation of the provisions of this Chapter shall have a civil cause of action in district court to enjoin further violations and to recover the actual damages sustained by him, together with the costs of court and a reasonable fee for his attorney of record, all of which shall be in addition to any other remedies contained in this Chapter.
Acts 1988, No. 886, §1.

Workplace Pumping Law

None

Enforcement Provision

None



Leave a Reply

CommentLuv badge